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As already mentioned, dopamine is an important neurotransmitter. It performs many functions in the human body, including being responsible for concentration and attention. Dopamine is also needed to regulate hormonal balance in both men and women.

Modafinil increases dopamine levels in the brain and inhibits its reuptake.

Neurons use dopamine to “communicate” with each other. Once the “message” is sent, dopamine is reabsorbed and broken down. Modafinil blocks this process.

Effect of Modafinil

Effect of modafinil on norepinephrine

Another name for norepinephrine is the hormone of rage and courage. It is a neurotransmitter that is responsible for the fight or flight response. When we sleep, its level in the body is minimal, and rises only with awakening. Also, a surge of the hormone occurs against the background of stress or panic.

Modafinil acts on norepinephrine in the same way as it does on dopamine. And norepinephrine, in turn, affects special receptors that are responsible for the body’s response to a stressful situation.

The effect of norepinephrine on the body:

The airways widen to let in more oxygen.

The heart beats faster so that the blood circulates faster.

The immune and digestive systems shut down to save more energy for muscle and brain work.

The blood vessels constrict to increase blood pressure and force the blood to circulate through the microcapillaries with more force.

By the way, many of the side effects of modafinil are actually related to the influence of norepinephrine and its manifestation during stress.

Effect of modafinil on norepinephrine

Effect of modafinil on orexin

Orexin is a transmitter produced by the hypothalamus of the brain.

The hypothalamus through the hormones produced by it affects many functions of the body. It is this part of the brain that sends impulses to different organs, thereby activating their work. Figuratively speaking, the hypothalamus is the center that controls all processes occurring in the body, including wakefulness. The orexin-containing neurons of the hypothalamus are responsible for this process. It is orexin that is responsible for vigilance and a sense of wakefulness.

Studies have shown that modafinil activates the neurons that control the release of orexin into the brain. In fact, this ability of modafinil is considered the most important when using the drug to treat narcolepsy, which is known to be associated with impaired orexin levels.

Effect of modafinil on orexin

Effect of modafinil on histamine

Histamine is one of the multifunctional compounds in the human body. It is this substance that is responsible for the symptoms that appear during an allergic reaction. In addition, histamine is an important brain neurotransmitter that plays one of the most important roles in the wakefulness process.

And this explains why many antihistamines used for allergies also have sedative properties. The process of blocking histamine leads to the fact that the brain cannot stimulate itself, which causes a feeling of fatigue and dizziness. And studies have shown that modafinil is able to release up to 150% of histamine in the brain.

Side Effect of Modafinil